This website is owned and operated by LibreTexts, Inc. referred to below also as LibreTexts, the LibreTexts Site, the LibreTexts Project and the LibreTexts Platform. It provides free and open educational materials as defined by UNESCO, “Open Educational Resources (OER) are teaching, learning and research materials in any medium – digital or otherwise – that reside in the public domain or have been released under an open license that permits no-cost access, use, adaptation and redistribution by others with no or limited restrictions.” Most of the materials are accessed through the Mindtouch Platform.

By using LibreTexts you agree to comply with these terms of use as well as those of Mindtouch. LibreTexts, Inc. reserved the right to change or modify the terms of service without notice at any time effective immediately on posting (given at the top and bottom of the page). Your continued use of LibreTexts constitutes your acceptance of these Terms and Conditions.


These terms of use are the entire agreement between LibreTexts, Inc. and you and supersedes any prior communication of any sort.

Intellectual Property

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User Content

You are responsible for your use of the services and for any content you provide, including compliance with applicable laws, rules, and regulations. You should only provide content that you are comfortable sharing with others.

We reserve the right to remove any content.


Content can be downloaded or copied consistent with the licensing of the material. If you download or copy any material from LibreTexts you are responsible for following all conditions consistent with the licensing of the material on your system.


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This Agreement shall be governed by the laws of the State of California, United States of America. If you access the LibreTexts, Inc website from locations outside California or the United States, you are voluntarily and purposefully availing yourself of the laws of the State of California, United States of America, and you are solely responsible for compliance with all your local laws. You waive any objection to inconvenient forum. Access to the LibreTexts, Inc. website from locations where LibreTexts, Inc. website contents may be unlawful is prohibited.

Changes to this Document

This document will be updated from time to time. Material changes will be announced. In continuing to use or access LibreTexts after those revisions become effective, you agree to be bound by the revised Terms. The effective dates can be found at the top and bottom of this document.

Questions Should be Addressed to
Subject: Questions about Terms and Conditions

Davis, CA

Effective 10/15/2020